Science Bit

What happens during a cold?

While the flu is caused by influenza virus, the common cold is caused by another virus, the rhinovirus.  Symptoms often include feeling bad, headache, stuffy nose, sore throat, itchy eyes, coughing and sometimes a low grade fever.  The rhinovirus is spread in the same way that the flu virus is through the nasal and respiratory secretions.  This means that when an individual coughs into

Woman sneezing into a tissue

Sneezing is one off the symptoms of the common cold

their hands or sneezes on an object the virus can be spread to the next person when it is transmitted to their hands in they touches their nose, mouth or eyes.  Sometimes the virus is spread directly when an individual sneezes in the area of another person’s face.

People become more susceptible to catching a cold, or the virus multiplying at such a rate inside the body that the immune system is not able to contain it before becoming sick, because of several different factors in their life.  The first is an underlying medical condition which adversely affects the immune system, such as diabetes, asthma, HIV or AIDS.  Another factor is rest.  When we do not get enough sleep each night our immune system is depressed, and we are no longer able to fight off the environmental toxins and waste products which cause illness.  Sugar will depress the immune system as can inappropriate nutritional intake.  We truly are what we eat, and when we do not provide our body adequate nutritional factors such as vitamins and minerals, we suffer overall poor health.

The University of Calgary scientist from Canada confirmed in late 2008 that it is the response of our immune system to the rhinovirus that causes the cold symptoms and not the rhinovirus itself.  There are over 100 different types of viruses that can cause the common cold, however, the human right of virus is a major cause.  The research was published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine and was the first time that scientists comprehensively reviewed the gene changes in the rhinovirus.

And, while the rhinovirus is the major cause of the common cold, it is also an important pathogen in other conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  For instance, researchers have found that children who get recurrent rhinovirus wheezing early in life are 10 times more likely to develop asthma later in life.

Symptoms usually occur within one to three days after catching the Cole or being exposed to the virus.  They often start with a burning feeling in the nose or throat.  Many individuals go on to experience sneezing, runny nose and the feeling of being tired and less specifically on well. It was once believed that dark mucus or yellow mucus meant you had developed a bacterial infection, but researchers today understand that this is not the case.

Some individuals will develop a mild to moderate cough and those who have asthma may find that their control of their disease has suddenly disappeared.  Usually there is no fever, but sometimes individuals can experience a mild, low grade fever of less than 100°F.  After about three days, the worst of the symptoms is usually over.  However, you can continue to experience congestion for over a week.

During the first three days, you have a cold you are contagious to others, so it is best to stay home and rest so that you don’t spread the virus to other people and that you will recover much more quickly.

If you continue to feel bad for over a week to 10 days you should seek the advice of your primary care physician who may do sinus x-rays or a nasal swab to determine if you are suffering from another illness.  Complications can ensue individuals who have a compromised immune system and can include bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis or worsening of their asthma.

Colds is usually seen in young children just before they develop an ear infection because of the drainage of the fluid behind the eardrum and the likelihood that they will develop a bacterial infection.

Preventing a cold is so much easier than suffering through one so avoid second hand smoke, unnecessary antibiotics, drink plenty of water and get enough rest.  Some research has found that bacteria in yogurt has helped in the prevention of colds.  Wash your hands whenever you feel you may have come in contact with the germs and periodically throughout the day.  Keep your hands away from your nose, mouth and eyes and use paper towels to dry your hands during the cold season instead of sharing a cloth towel.

Of course you want to avoid getting the common cold. The best way to prevent this, is using the same principles you would use to prevent the flu.

Relaxing Herbal Tea Mixture

Relaxing Herbal Tea

Relaxing Herbal Tea

Take this calming blend of soothing and calming herbs to dissipate tension after a busy day.

50 gr dried balm (Melissa officinalis)
50 gr dried chamomile (matricaria recutita or chamaemelum nobile)
50 gr dried lime blossom (Tilia spp)

Mix the herbs and keep them in a dark jar.

Put 1-2 teaspoons in a teapot.

Next you add a cup of boiling water and leave to steep for 5-10 minutes.

How to Make a Herbal Tea

Part of the art of herbal medicine is to knowing what technique to use in preparing the remedies.
We will show you perhaps the simplest way of making a herbal remedy that almost everybody has already done before, maybe without realizing it. We are making a medicinal herbal infusion (tea) using dried herbs. If you want to replace them for fresh herbs, please keep in mind that you use 3 times as much for the fresh one. That means 1 teaspoon dried for 3 teaspoon fresh. This is because of the higher water content of the fresh herb. The tea may be drunk hot or cold.
If you normally are used to put milk or sugar in your tea, please try this first without, if you don’t like it, sweeten with licorice root or honey. Try to avoid sugar, especially white sugar because this doesn’t help you to relax.

Because of the medicinal qualities a herb has we have to be careful and should only take a herbal tea for medicinal reason, it is not meant to be drunken because we like it so much.
The best tea you can drink for pleasure are: white tea, green tea and redbush.

Standard dosage medicinal use: Take 3 times a day a teacup. The dosage for children and elderly people should be less. For elderly people use half the dosage (this because the metabolism slows down with age) and children under two years a fifth of the adult dose and let this slowly up to a quarter for children of 3 or 4 years (depending on the weight of the child), a third for children of 6 or 7 years, half of children aged 8 or 9 years, until the full dose in puberty.

1. Take a china or glass teapot which has been warmed and put one teaspoonful of the dried herb or herb mixture into it for each cup of tea that you intend to brew.

2. Pour a cup of just boiled water in the teapot for each
teaspoonful of herb that is already in the pot and then
put the lid on. Leave too steep for ten to fifteen minutes.


Carotenoids are yellow or red pigments found in all photosynthesizing plants. With anthocyanins they contribute to autumn foliage shades when chlorophyll is lost. There are two types of carotenoids: the carotenes and xanthophylls. Carotenes are hydrocarbons (tetraterpenes), which are converted to vitamin A in the body. Xanthophylls are oxygenated derivatives of carotenes; they have no provitamin A activity.


These are substances that reduce the level of blood sugar. For diabetics they can be dangerous unless professionally prescribed. Herbs with this property include: Kidney Bean, Bilberry, Bogbean, Greater Burdock, Chicory, Cowberry, Fenugreek, Common (Stinging) Nettle, Goat’s Rue.

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How to avoid Mineral-Depletion in your food

by Henk Niermans

As dr. Sarah Myhill explained in Nutritional Supplements we now know why there are not enough minerals in our food and the next question is;
How can we improve this?

The answer is quite simple;

Use homemade compost

    The benefits of using your own compost

  • You have the minerals back in your food and therefore back in your body!
  • After about 2-3 years you will see that there is less weed and the soil is more loose and easier to work in
  • The time you can keep the fresh vegetables in your larder/fridge are longer
  • Also over the years you will notice an improvement in taste
  • By using compost for a number of years you will have less weed in your garden. (Is less work)
  • Less waste for the tip

Growing your own vegetables with a lot of minerals can be easy.
People who have a garden can be growing their own vegetables and fruit.
For those who have no garden, can grow fruit and vegetables in pots, simply use big flower pots or anything else you can think of. Having no garden doesn’t have to be a problem because there are very small compost makers available which you can feed with all your kitchen waste.
You not only give yourself the best possible food but also you are reducing the amount of waste that goes to the tip.

What goes in the compost?
Every-thing that can rot;Making your own compost

    • kitchen waste,
    • garden waste
    • some grass clippings

Also when you are weeding, leave a bit of soil on the weed and bring that to the heap. The more different weeds/plants that come in the compost-heap the better it will be.

You can put egg-shells in your compost heap but try to break them down as much as possible. When you don’t break them down you will find pieces of egg-shells in your garden and the calcium is not completely added to the soil/compost, it is up to you. You cannot go wrong here.

Never put citrus peels in the compost heap because most of them are treated with an anti fungus liquid. We need fungus to brake down the plant waste and do not forget the worms, they are very important in compost making.

Worms travel from top to bottom the whole day. Eat upstairs; go to the toilet downstairs and so on. This means that the best compost is in the bottom of the heap. Moist is also important and the way we are building our heap.

Now we know what to put in the compost heap, we can start making compost.

Making the compost

      1. Make 3 spaces (3= minimum, 4 is better) next to each other.
      You can use some post as corners and nail some old boards to it.
      Every space has 3 sides and because they are next to each other you need only 4 sides and one long back connecting the 3 bins together.
      2. In the first space we deposit all the garden and kitchen waste. Make sure that the garden waste is not bigger than about 2 inches or 5 centimetres.
      Cut bigger bits from scrubs because when scrubs grow older they are getting woodier.
      3. We leave it there for about 2-3 months and turn it round every 2-3 weeks because by turning it round we bring air into the waste. This can be hard work but the results are rewarding. Without air we will get a stinking wet substance but with turning it round on regular basis we activate the process.
      4. After about 3 months, we bring it all to the second space. In the first space we start again with fresh waste.
      5. The second space has to be turned also every 2-3 weeks and after about 3 months moved to the last space. We now move space 2 to space 3 and space 1 to space 2.
      6. After about 3 months, space 3 is ready to spread over your vegetable bed. It will be a very loose soil and gives a lovely smell. Also in the compost you will find lots of worms who are the most imported part of the whole process.

Make sure the compost heap is not to wet. When you see a lot of wood louse the compost is too wet. You can solve this by covering the first 2 heaps with a plastic sheet. However do not cover it 100% because than the air cannot circulate.

Growing comfrey is also a good way to bring minerals from very deep to the surface. The root system from comfrey goes very deep; some people say as much as 2-3 meters. By using the leaves in the compost or spread them out on your vegetables bed and let them rot away, we are improving the mineral content of the soil and therefore the minerals in our food.

By making your own compost you reduce your waste, have less weed and in the same time you have the minerals back in the food for you and your family.

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Herbs – Minerals

Medicinal plants contain varying amounts of mineral substances, but they are rarely prescribed to replace minerals that have been lost from the body. Silicic acid is especially characteristic of horsetails and grasses, and some members of the Labiatae (mint) and Boraginaceae (borage) families (for example, Hemp nettles and Common Gromwell). Common Gromwell also contains abundant calcium salts, and nettles and Watercress iron. Potassium salts are found in Dandelion, Kidney Bean and Nettles, and in some fruits. Plants rich in potassium may be useful in low-sodium diets.

Herbs – Vitamins

Few plants contain sufficient amounts of any vitamin for them to be medically prescribed when there is a deficiency, but any vitamin-rich herb is an excellent addition to the diet, especially during the winter months. As examples; Carrot, Dandelion and Watercress are sources of carotenes, which are precursors of vitamin A; many cereals, including Common Oat, are good sources of vitamin B complex; vitamin C is abundant in fruits such as Black Currant, Green Pepper and Sea Buckthorn, and in the leaves of Dandelion, Nettles, Parsley and Watercress; vitamins D and E are found in Watercress; and nettles are a source of vitamin K. The vitamin content is always greatest in fresh, uncooked plant parts.

Herbs – Mucilages and Pectins

Plant mucilages are amorphous mixtures of polysaccharides that dissolve in water to form extremely viscous colloid systems. In cold water they swell and form a slimy gel; in warm water they dissolve into colloid systems that gel when cooled. Most are formed by the plant cell walls.[ Members Only Content - please sign up to view it... ]

Herbs – Volatile Oils

Most of the volatile oils are based on simple molecules like isoprene or isopentane, which can combine in many different ways to form terpenes, containing multiples of the basic 5-carbon molecules, sometimes with slight variation, making up the volatile oils. We can find the volatile oils in the aromatic plants such as Peppermint or Thyme,[ Members Only Content - please sign up to view it... ]

The Chemistry of Herbs

Here we show you how things work.
The Chemistry of Herbs

Plants contain a vast range of chemicals, ranging from water and inorganic salts, sugars and carbohydrates to highly complex proteins and alkaloids. We will focus here on the role these substances have to play, not in the plant itself, but in the body. We will mainly concentrate on the groups that act medicinally, though we shall look at some which are important nutrients and thus influence the body.

We will look at plant pharmacology, briefly examining the various groupings that the numerous constituents have been divided into, looking at their function, and giving some examples of where they occur. These groupings are referred to throughout the newsletters, website and the encyclopaedia and, as far as they are known, the relevant constituents are given in the Medicinal herbs explained. The groupings followed here are based on the structure of the constituents rather than on their function, which is dealt with in the section on The Actions of Herbs.

Knowledge of plant pharmacology is not essential to a herbalist, but is a great help in understanding the plant.

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These are substances that reduce the level of blood sugar. For diabetics they can be dangerous unless professionally prescribed. Herbs with this property include: Kidney Bean, Bilberry, Bogbean, Greater Burdock, Chicory, Cowberry, Fenugreek, Common (Stinging) Nettle, Goat’s Rue.